I've been going into my calculus classes to teach with fewer and fewer notes this semester. I've got a few examples in mind, but that's about it. And I really think it is going well. I think it helps that I started this way on the first day. I also seem to have a pretty good class - I've certainly been pleased so far. After today's class, and some others recently, I'm starting to think that posing the same question to my class a few times, either asking for a different solution, or just a differently-stated solution, is a good habit.

Last week we were talking about improper integrals in class. After some introductory discussion, I asked them to tell me which of the integrals, $\int_1^{\infty} \frac{e^{\sqrt{x}}}{\sqrt{x}}\ dx$ or $\int_1^{\infty} \frac{1}{\sqrt{x}e^{\sqrt{x}}\ dx$ could possibly converge, and why. The first answer I got was to actually compute the first integral and notice that it diverges, so that couldn't be it. A good answer, certainly, with an opportunity to talk about $u$-substitution with improper integrals. And then I asked again, for another reason. A student brought up the integral $\int_1^{\infty} \frac{1}{\sqrt{x}}\ dx$, which we already knew diverged, and this gave us the chance to talk about the comparison test. I think at this point we about ran out of time, but I know somewhere in there we also had a discussion about functions that approach 0 not necessarily having a convergent improper integral to infinity. We didn't get to L'Hospital's rule (hopefully a reminder, this being calc 2) that day, but did eventually, with this same example.

Today I was talking about parametric curves. I asked them to take a few minutes to try to sketch the parametric curve $(t^2-1,t^3)$, and then had students come to the board to draw what they had. I was happy to get two different answers - something like a sideways parabola, and then the correct graph, with a cusp. I asked them how we could tell which could possibly be the correct graph, because they both went through the first few easy points, (0,-1), (-1,0), and (0,1). A student pointed out that $y$ was changing faster than $x$, so it shouldn't be the sideways parabola. I didn't want to talk about concavity just yet, but we did get to it eventually.

Then I asked basically the same question, drawing three different curves that weren't the sideways parabola. One had a cusp at (-1,0) where the derivative approached 0 from both sides, another had a cusp where the derivative approached +/-1 (or so), and the third had a vertical asymptote at (-1,0), almost like the graph of $e^{-x^2}$ flipped sideways. I asked which of these it could possibly be, several times. I was delighted to get lots of answers, and continue to pressure the students to reformulate their answers to try to be more precise. I like to think that I waited through the quiet moments while students were working on more answers, or reformulating old answers. I like to think that's what they were doing, instead of just waiting for me to tell them the answer.

I love the feeling that nobody in the class is talking (me especially) because everybody is thinking hard about the same question. I hope that was actually the case with the quiet moments today. I think this process of asking the same question a few ways, or asking for students to answer it a few ways, and me harassing them about their answers, is a good process. We're not just going through "routine" calculations, and I like that. I also hope that I can continue to get lucky with examples that I can do this with.

## Wednesday, September 9, 2009

## Monday, September 7, 2009

### Parametric Explorer

If you've been following my twitter stream the past few days, you may have noticed that I've been mentioning (and shamefully linking to) a webpage I've been working on to explore parametric curves. Today I decided to make another round of improvements and it was going well, so I thought I'd share here as well. I like to think it is something that calculus teachers might find useful.

Anyway, the page is sort of introduced on my personal website, and the actual "play around with this" page is here. I've only gotten it to work in Firefox 3.5 and Google Chrome. That's enough for me to play with it, so I don't intend to do much more in terms of browser compatibility work on it.

The idea is that your mouse coordinates describe a parametric curve as you move around the screen. The webpage then also graphs the individual curves $x(t)$ and $y(t)$.

There's certainly room for improvement, but I'm happy enough with it as it is to not worry about it for now.

Anyway, the page is sort of introduced on my personal website, and the actual "play around with this" page is here. I've only gotten it to work in Firefox 3.5 and Google Chrome. That's enough for me to play with it, so I don't intend to do much more in terms of browser compatibility work on it.

The idea is that your mouse coordinates describe a parametric curve as you move around the screen. The webpage then also graphs the individual curves $x(t)$ and $y(t)$.

There's certainly room for improvement, but I'm happy enough with it as it is to not worry about it for now.

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